Circulating microparticles as biomarkers of stroke: A focus on the value of endothelial- and platelet-derived microparticles.
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Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Numerous pathophysiological mechanisms involving blood vessels, coagulation and inflammation contribute to the vascular occlusion. Perturbations in these pathways can be detected by numerous methods including changes in endoplasmic membrane remodeling and rearrangement leading to the shedding of microparticles (MPs) from various cellular origins in the blood. MPs are small membrane-derived vesicles that are shed from nearly all cells in the body in resting state or upon stimulation. MPs act as biological messengers to transfer information to adjacent and distant cells thus regulating various biological processes. MPs may be important biomarkers and tools for the identification of the risk and diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. Endothelial activation and dysfunction and altered thrombotic responses are two of the main features predisposing to stroke. Endothelial MPs (EMPs) have been recognized as both biomarkers and effectors of endothelial cell activation and injury while platelet-derived MPs (PMPs) carry a strong procoagulant potential and are activated in thrombotic states. Therefore, we reviewed here the role of EMPs and PMPs as biomarkers of stroke. Most studies reported high circulating levels of EMPs and PMPs in addition to other cell origins in stroke patients and have been linked to stroke severity, the size of infarction, and prognosis. The identification and quantification of EMPs and PMPs may thus be useful for the diagnosis and management of stroke.
- Pharmacy Research [166 items ]