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AuthorGatalica, Zoran
AuthorXiu, Joanne
AuthorSwensen, Jeff
AuthorVranic, Semir
Available date2019-10-06T09:38:35Z
Publication Date2018
Publication NameEuropean Journal of Cancer
ISSN0959-8049
URIhttp://dx.doi.org//10.1016/j.ejca.2018.02.021
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10576/12084
AbstractBackground: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignancies. Avoiding immune destruction is a major cancer characteristic and therapies aimed at immune checkpoint blockade are in use for several specific cancer types. A comprehensive survey of predictive biomarkers to immune checkpoint blockade in CUP were explored in this study. Methods: About 389 cases of CUP were analysed for mutations in 592 genes and 52 gene fusions using a massively parallel DNA sequencing platform (next-generation sequencing [NGS]). Total mutational load (TML) and microsatellite instability (MSI) were calculated from NGS data. PD-L1 expression was explored using immunohistochemistry (with 5% cutoff value). Results: High TML was seen in 11.8% (46/389) of tumours. MSI-high (MSI-H) was detected in 7/384 (1.8%) of tumours. Tumour PD-L1 expression was detected in 80/362 CUP (22%). A small proportion of CUP cases harboured genetic alterations of negative predictive biomarkers to immune checkpoint inhibitors (predictors to hyperprogression) including MDM2 gene amplification (2%) and loss of function JAK2 gene mutations (1%). Amplifications of CD274 (PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2) genes were also rare (1.4% and 0.8%, respectively). The most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (54%), KRAS (22%), ARID1A (13%), PIK3CA (9%), CDKN2A (8%), SMARCA4 (7%) and PBRM1, STK11, APC, RB1 (5%, respectively). Conclusions: Using a multiplex testing approach, 28% of CUP carried one or more predictive biomarkers (MSI-H, PD-L1 and/or TML-H) to the immune checkpoint blockade, providing a novel option for treatment in patients with CUP.
Languageen
PublisherElsevier Ltd
SubjectCancer of unknown primary (CUP)
SubjectImmune checkpoint inhibitors
SubjectTargeted therapy
TitleComprehensive analysis of cancers of unknown primary for the biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy
TypeArticle
Pagination179-186
Volume Number94


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