MXene Nanosheets May Induce Toxic Effect on the Early Stage of Embryogenesis.
Hussein, Essraa A
Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin
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MXene (Ti₃C₂T), as a novel 2D material, has produced a great interest due to its promising properties in biomedical applications, nevertheless, there is a lack of studies dedicated to investigate the possible toxic effect of MXene in embryos. Herein, we aim to scrutinize the potential toxicity of MXene nanosheets on the early stage of the embryo as well as angiogenesis. Avian embryos at 3 and 5 days of incubation were used as an experimental model in this investigation. Our findings reveal that MXene may produce adverse effect on the early stage of embryogenesis as ∼46% of MXene-exposed embryos died during 1-5 days after exposure. We also found that MXene at tested concentration inhibits angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane of the embryo after 5 days of incubation. More significantly, RT-PCR analysis of seven genes, which are key regulators of cell proliferation, survival, cell death and angiogenesis, revealed that these genes were deregulated in brain, heart and liver tissues from MXene-treated embryos in comparison with their matched controls. Our study clearly suggests that MXene at studied concentration might induce a toxic effect on the early stage of embryogenesis; nevertheless, more investigations are necessary to understand the effect at low concentrations and elucidate its mechanism at the early stage of normal development.
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