The Effects of Gum Acacia on the Composition of the Gut Microbiome and Plasma Levels of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in a Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease
Sohail, Muhammad Umar
Shoair, Banan Mosaad
Al-Baniali, Asmaa Yousef
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be fatal for its victims and is an important long-term public health problem. The complicated medical procedures and diet restrictions to which patients with CKD are subjected alter the gut microbiome in an adverse manner, favoring over-accumulation of proteolytic bacteria that produce ammonia and other toxic substances. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of GA on 1) the composition of the gut microbiome and 2) on plasma levels of short-chain fatty acids. Male Wister rats were divided into four groups (six each) and treated for 4 weeks based on the following: control, dietary adenine (0.75%, w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15%, w/v), and both adenine and GA. At the end of the treatment period, plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected for determination of several biochemical indicators of renal function and plasma levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as characterization of the gut microbiome. Dietary adenine induced the typical signs of CKD, i.e., loss of body weight and impairment of renal function, while GA alleviated these effects. The intestine of the rats with CKD contained an elevated abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia but lowered proportions of Lactobacillaceae belonging to the Firmicutes phylum. Plasma levels of propionate and butyrate were lowered by dietary adenine and restored by GA. A negative association (Spearman’s p-value ≤ 0.01, r ≤ 0.5) was observed between Firmicutes and plasma creatinine, urea, urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and albumin. Phylum Proteobacteria on the other hand was positively associated with these markers while Phylum Bacteroidetes was positively associated with plasma SCFAs. In conclusion, the adverse changes in the composition of the gut microbiome, plasma levels of SCFAs, and biochemical indicators of renal function observed in the rats with CKD induced by dietary adenine were mitigated by GA. These findings are indicative of a link between uremia and the composition of the microbiome in connection with this disease. Dietary administration of GA to patients with CKD may improve their renal function via modulating the composition of their microbiome—a finding that certainly warrants further investigation.
- Biomedical Sciences [269 items ]