Presence of high-risk HPVs, EBV, and MMTV in human triple-negative breast cancer.
Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin
Al-Farsi, Halema F
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Breast cancer, the most frequent disease amongst women worldwide, accounts for the highest cancer-related mortality rate. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype encompasses ~15% of all breast cancers and lack estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Although risk factors for breast cancer are well-known, factors underpinning breast cancer onset and progression remain unknown. Recent studies suggest the plausible role of oncoviruses including human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) in breast cancer pathogenesis. However, the role of these oncoviruses in TNBC is still unclear. In the current study, we explored the status of high-risk HPVs, EBV, and MMTV in a well-defined TNBC cohort from Croatia in comparison to 16 normal/non TNBC samples (controls) using polymerase chain reaction assay. We found high-risk HPVs and EBV present in 37/70 (53%) and 25/70 (36%) of the cases, respectively. The most common HPV types are 52, 45, 31, 58 and 68. We found 16% of the samples positive for co-presence of high-risk HPVs and EBV. Moreover, our data revealed that 5/70 (7%) samples are positive for MMTV. In addition, only 2/70 (3%) samples had co-presence of HPVs, EBV, and MMTV without any significant association with the clinicopathological variables. While, 6/16 (37.5%) controls were positive for HPV ( = .4), EBV was absent in all controls (0/16, 0%) ( = .01). In addition, we did not find the co-presence of the oncoviruses in the controls ( > .05). Nevertheless, further investigations are essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of multiple-oncogenic viruses' interaction in breast carcinogenesis, especially TNBC.
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