Design and Development of Rapid EV Charging System with V2G and V2H Operations
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Plug in Electric vehicles (EVs) can act as source or load to the electric distribution network concept known as the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system, or the lesser-known vehicle-to-home (V2H) system. Such systems can improve the stability of the national grid by what is known as peak shaving, where the peak load is distributed throughout the day, causing less stress on transmission and generation stations. They can also increase the efficiency of transmission by introducing reactive power into the grid, which will increase the P.U. transmission voltage without the use of compensation. V2G systems can also be beneficial to the end users, as there is some economical gain from it since the end user will be selling electricity from their EV to the grid at a higher tariff than usual. For a V2G concept to be applied on a national scale, a few key components must be present, including a clear, tamper-free and secure path of communication, an optimized charging/discharging schedule, and the technological hardware to support a bidirectional power flow. This paper skims through the details of a proposed V2G/V2H enabled fast charging solution, including the basic functions of the design, the topology and design of the converters, as well as the hardware implementation aspect. The design was made to accommodate clean energy, as well as the local grid, where it can operate on four modes: V2G, G2V, V2H, and PV2V.