An overview of the occurrence, fate, and human risks of the bisphenol-A present in plastic materials, components, and products.
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With over 95% of bisphenol-A (BPA) used in the production of polycarbonate (PC) and epoxy resins, termed here as BPA-based plastic materials, components, and products (MCPs), an investigation of human exposure to BPA over the whole lifecycle of BPA-based plastic MCPs is necessary. This mini-review unpacks the implications arising from the long-term human exposure to BPA and its potential accumulation across the lifecycle of BPA-based plastics (production, use, and management). This investigation is timely and necessary in promoting a sustainable circular economy model. Restrictions of BPA in the form of bans and safety standards are often specific to products, while safety limits rely on traditional toxicological and biomonitoring methods that may underestimate human health implications and therefore the "safety" of BPA exposure. Controversies in regards to the: (a) dose-response curves; (b) the complexity of sources, release mechanisms, and pathways of exposure; and/or (c) the quality and reliability of toxicological studies, appear to currently stifle progress toward the regulation of BPA-based plastic MCPs. Due to the abundance of BPA in our MCPs production, consumption, and management systems, there is partial and inadequate evidence on the contribution of BPA-based plastic MCPs to human exposure to BPA. Yet, the production, use, and end-of-life management of plastic MCPs constitute the most critical BPA source and potential exposure pathways that require further investigation. Active collaboration among risk assessors, government, policy-makers, and researchers is needed to explore the impacts of BPA in the long term and introduce restrictions to BPA-based MCPs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2022;00:1-18. © SETAC.
- Center for Sustainable Development Research [158 items ]