An infant with ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum associated with a cleft lip and palate: A case report
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Ankyloblepharon filiform adnatum (AFA) is a rare but potentially ambylogenic congenital anomaly characterized by a partial or complete fusion of the eyelid margins.1 Although AFA has been reported as an isolated finding, it also has been associated with several disorders or as a part of well-defined syndromes (e.g., Edwards, Hay–Wells, popliteal pterygium, and curly hair-ankyloblepharon-nail dysplasia syndromes).2 Rosenman et al3 classified AFA into four groups: The first group consists of isolated cases that occur sporadically with no associated defects and with no particular genetic pattern; the second group is associated with life-threatening cardiac and CNS defects; the third group that occurs with ectodermal syndromes and has an autosomal dominant pattern; and a fourth group associated with cleft lip and palate defects, which were recorded in the proband or the extended family. Bacal et al4 further proposed the fifth group that includes AFA associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Williams et al5 introduced the sixth group, covering the cases with a family history of AFA without systemic anomalies. Therefore, the discovery of AFA requires a thorough pediatric examination. An early diagnosis and management of AFA prevent a stimulus deprivation amblyopia, which can cause a devastating effect on the visual acuity of the neonate. Simple excision of the tissue band from the lid margins has been used to treat AFA.
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