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AuthorZhu, Hong
AuthorIryo-Asano, Miho
AuthorAlhajyaseen, Wael K.M.
AuthorNakamura, Hideki
AuthorDias, Charitha
Available date2022-10-17T08:00:46Z
Publication Date2021-12-01
Publication NameAccident Analysis and Prevention
CitationZhu, H., Iryo-Asano, M., Alhajyaseen, W. K., Nakamura, H., & Dias, C. (2021). Interactions between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks considering occlusions by opposing vehicles. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 163, 106468.
AbstractVisibility can be identified as one of the critical determinants for the safety performance of autonomous vehicles (AVs) on unsignalized mid-block crosswalks (UMC), which may be significantly influenced by build-up environment and surrounding vehicles. This study investigates the safety performance when AVs interact with pedestrians approaching from far-side sidewalks to UMCs considering the visual occlusion of opposing vehicles. A mathematical model is proposed for judging the visibilities of objects from observers’ location under the impact of visual obstacles and is embedded into an agent-based pedestrian-vehicle interaction framework. Two yielding decision modules is assumed for AVs: The normal decision module implements the pedestrian priority rule simply based on the current detectable information, whereas the memory aid decision module extends AVs’ detection abilities by incorporating the memory data. Through simulation experiments, it is found that the percentages of short post encroachment time (%SPET) between AVs and far-side pedestrians reach peaks when the pedestrian flow rate is 300–400 ped/h. When opposing vehicles are in stationary queue conditions, %SPETs are only sensitive to the net distance between the last opposing vehicles in the queue and crosswalks (Dqueue). As the Dqueue decreases to lower than 15 m, %SPETs start to increase drastically. However, when opposing vehicles are in free flow conditions, %SPETs are influenced by multiple factors such as pedestrians’ crossing decisions, sizes and flow rates of opposing vehicles. Furthermore, only when opposing vehicles are in free flow conditions, memory aid AVs can significantly eliminate the impacts of opposite vehicles. Finally, several countermeasures are developed to enhance the visibility and safety at UMCs based on the findings of this study.
SponsorThe Qatar–Japan Research Collaboration Application Award [M-QJRC-2020-8] from Qatar University. This research is supported by The Kurata Grants No. 1397 of Hitachi Global Foundation.
PublisherElsevier Ltd
SubjectAutonomous vehicle
Pedestrian-vehicle interaction
Post encroachment time
Unsignalized mid-block crosswalks
TitleInteractions between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks considering occlusions by opposing vehicles
Volume Number163
dc.accessType Abstract Only

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