Suitability of digoxin as a P-glycoprotein probe: Implications of other transporters on sensitivity and specificity
The study of transporter-mediated drug–drug interactions (DDI) requires use of appropriate probes to reflect transporter function. Digoxin is often used as a probe in DDI studies involving P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is recommended by FDA for this purpose, despite several lingering questions regarding suitability of digoxin as P-gp probe. This review aims to critically evaluate use of digoxin as a probe for P-gp-mediated clinical DDI studies, with focus on sensitivity and specificity of digoxin for P-gp. Although previous reviews have evaluated digoxin transport by P-gp, the purpose of the current review is to critically evaluate such literature in light of newly evolving literature suggesting digoxin transport by non-P-gp transporters.
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