Association between metabolically healthy obesity and metastasis in lung cancer patients – a systematic review and meta-analysis
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Background: Many clinical trials have looked at the relationship between obesity and lung cancer (LC), however, there is scarcity of literature specifically addressing the association between metabolically healthy obesity and metastasis in LC patients. To address this gap in the body of evidence, the study was conducted to observe the association between metabolically healthy obesity and metastasis in LC patients. Methods: We conducted a pre-registered systematic review by searching six major online databases to identify studies relevant related to our investigation, in adherence with the PRISMA guidelines. A proper data extraction protocol was further established to synthesize the findings from the selected papers through a meta-analysis. Results: Eleven (11) studies met the requisite selection criterion and were included in the study. A random-effect model was used. Obesity was found to have a significant impact on readmission in LC patients. The combined analysis showed a significant effect size of 0.08 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.08), indicating a noticeable impact of obesity. It was also assessed that obese individuals had a 34% reduced risk of LC compared to normal weight individuals. Obesity was associated with a lower risk of surgical complications with a pooled risk ratio of 0.13 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.14). A statistically significant decreased risk of LC (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.77) was also observed in the obese individuals. Conclusion: The analysis reveals that obesity is associated with a noticeable increase in readmissions, although the impact on LC risk itself is negligible. Moreover, obesity appears to have a beneficial effect by reducing the risk of surgical complications. These results highlight the complex relationship between the two aforementioned factors, emphasizing the importance of considering obesity as a significant factor in patient management and healthcare decision-making. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42023427612.