Temporal cross talk between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria regulates oxidative stress and mediates microparticle-induced endothelial dysfunction
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Aims: Circulating microparticles (MPs) from metabolic syndrome patients and those generated from apoptotic T-cells induce endothelial dysfunction; however, the molecular and cellular mechanism(s) underlying in the effects of MPs remain to be elucidated. Results: Here, we show that both types of MPs increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers XBP-1, p-eIF2alpha and CHOP and nuclear translocation of ATF6 on human aortic endothelial cells. MPs decreased in vitro nitric oxide release by human aortic endothelial cells, whereas in vivo MP injection into mice impaired the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine. These effects were prevented when ER stress was inhibited suggesting that ER stress is implicated in the endothelial effects induced by MPs. MPs affected mitochondrial function and evoked sequential increase of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pharmacological inhibition of ER stress and silencing of neutral sphingomyelinase with siRNA abrogated all MP-mediated effects. Neutralization of Fas-Ligand carried by MPs abolished effects induced by both MP types, whereas neutralization of low density lipoprotein-receptor on endothelial cells prevented T-lymphocyte MP-mediated effects. Innovation and Conclusion: Collectively, endothelial dysfunction triggered by MPs involves temporal cross-talk between ER and mitochondria with respect to spatial regulation of ROS via the neutral sphingomyelinase and interaction of MPs with Fas and/or low density lipoprotein-receptor. These results provide a novel molecular insight into the manner MPs mediate vascular dysfunction and allow identification of potential therapeutic targets to treat vascular complications associated with metabolic syndrome.
- Pharmacy Research [124 items ]