Circulating miRNAs in HER2-Positive and Triple Negative Breast Cancers: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets.
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Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases among women worldwide and is highly associated with cancer-related mortality. Of the four major molecular subtypes, HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprise more than 30% of all breast cancers. While the HER2-positive subtype lacks estrogen and progesterone receptors and overexpresses HER2, the TNBC subtype lacks estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors. Although advances in molecular biology and genetics have substantially ameliorated breast cancer disease management, targeted therapies for the treatment of estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer patients are still restricted, particularly for TNBC. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that microRNAs, miRNAs or small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression are involved in diverse biological processes, including carcinogenesis. Moreover, circulating miRNAs in serum/plasma are among the most promising diagnostic/therapeutic tools as they are stable and relatively easy to quantify. Various circulating miRNAs have been identified in several human cancers including specific breast cancer subtypes. This review aims to discuss the role of circulating miRNAs as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets for estrogen-receptor negative breast cancers, HER2+ and triple negative.
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