SARS-CoV-2 and immune-microbiome interactions: Lessons from respiratory viral infections
Sohail, Muhammad Umar
MetadataShow full item record
By the beginning of 2020, infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had rapidly evolved into an emergent worldwide pandemic, an outbreak whose unprecedented consequences highlighted many existing flaws within public healthcare systems across the world. While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is bestowed with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, involving the vital organs, the respiratory system transpires as the main route of entry for SARS-CoV-2, with the lungs being its primary target. Of those infected, up to 20% require hospitalization on account of severity, while the majority of patients are either asymptomatic or exhibit mild symptoms. Exacerbation in the disease severity and complications of COVID-19 infection have been associated with multiple comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and chronic lung disease. Interestingly, a recent body of evidence indicated the pulmonary and gut microbiomes as potential modulators for altering the course of COVID-19, potentially via the microbiome-immune system axis. While the relative concordance between microbes and immunity has yet to be fully elucidated with regards to COVID-19, we present an overview of our current understanding of COVID-19-microbiome-immune cross talk and discuss the potential contributions of microbiome-related immunity to SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and COVID-19 disease progression.