MicroRNAs as Potential Pharmaco-targets in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Compounded by Diabetes.
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Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) injury is the tissue damage that results from re-oxygenation of ischemic tissues. There are many players that contribute to I/R injury. One of these factors is the family of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are currently being heavily studied. This review aims to critically summarize the latest papers that attributed roles of certain miRNAs in I/R injury, particularly in diabetic conditions and dissect their potential as novel pharmacologic targets in the treatment and management of diabetes. PubMed was searched for publications containing microRNA and I/R, in the absence or presence of diabetes. All papers that provided sufficient evidence linking miRNA with I/R, especially in the context of diabetes, were selected. Several miRNAs are found to be either pro-apoptotic, as in the case of miR-34a, miR-144, miR-155, and miR-200, or anti-apoptotic, as in the case of miR-210, miR-21, and miR-146a. Here, we further dissect the evidence that shows diverse cell-context dependent effects of these miRNAs, particularly in cardiomyocytes, endothelial, or leukocytes. We also provide insight into cases where the possibility of having two miRNAs working together to intensify a given response is noted. This review arrives at the conclusion that the utilization of miRNAs as translational agents or pharmaco-targets in treating I/R injury in diabetic patients is promising and becoming increasingly clearer.