Modulation of wettability, gradient and adhesion on self-assembled monolayer by counterion exchange and pH
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In this study, two quaternary ammonium salts derived from L-lipoic acid were applied for self-assembled monolayers formation on rough structured gold surface. The derivatives differ in functionality since one possesses simple quaternary ammonium group whereas the other one is carboxybetaine ester containing quaternary ammonium group with pH hydrolysable ester group as a pendant. The response of surface wettability to ion exchange between Cl? and perfluorooctanoate, kinetics and gradient wettability were examined by water contact angle measurement and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, adhesion forces related to applied counterion on the entire surface and after hydrolysis were investigated by atomic force microscopy measurement at nanometer scales. A dramatic change in wettability upon counterion exchange from superhydrophilic for Cl? to very or superhydrophobic for perfluorooctanoate in a repeatable manner was observed for both derivatives. Kinetics of counterion exchanges revealed faster hydration of simple quaternary derivate. The wettability gradient could be designed from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic either in a reversible manner by simple immersion of the modified surface in a counterion solution modulated by ionic strength or in an irreversible manner for carboxybetaine ester derivate by time-controlled hydrolysis to charge balanced carboxybetaine. 2017 Elsevier Inc.
- Center for Advanced Materials Research [388 items ]