Crosstalk between HER2 and PD-1/PD-L1 in Breast Cancer: From Clinical Applications to Mathematical Models.
Kheraldine, Hadeel Shafeeq
Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin
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Breast cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in women worldwide. The most aggressive breast cancer subtypes are human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2) and triple-negative breast cancers. Therapies targeting HER2 receptors have significantly improved HER2 breast cancer patient outcomes. However, several recent studies have pointed out the deficiency of existing treatment protocols in combatting disease relapse and improving response rates to treatment. Overriding the inherent actions of the immune system to detect and annihilate cancer via the immune checkpoint pathways is one of the important hallmarks of cancer. Thus, restoration of these pathways by various means of immunomodulation has shown beneficial effects in the management of various types of cancers, including breast. We herein review the recent progress in the management of HER2 breast cancer via HER2-targeted therapies, and its association with the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis. In order to link research in the areas of medicine and mathematics and point out specific opportunities for providing efficient theoretical analysis related to HER2 breast cancer management, we also review mathematical models pertaining to the dynamics of HER2 breast cancer and immune checkpoint inhibitors.