The effect of surface-modified gold nanorods on the early stage of embryonic development and angiogenesis: Insight into the molecular pathways
AuthorMahmoud, Nouf N.
Zakaria, Zain Zaki
Moustafa, Ala Eddin Al
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Gold nanorods have been implicated in several biomedical applications. Herein, the effect of two surface-modified gold nanorods on the early stages of embryogenesis and angiogenesis was investigated using avian embryos at three days and their chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) at five days of incubation. We found that gold nanorods (GNR) modified with PEGylated phospholipid moiety show a high mortality rate in embryos after four days of exposure compared to GNR modified with PEGylated cholesterol moiety. Meanwhile, our data revealed that surface modified-GNR significantly inhibit the formation of new blood vessels in the treated CAM model after 48 h of exposure. Moreover, we report that surface-modified GNR significantly deregulate the expression of several genes implicated in cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, cellular energy metabolism, and angiogenesis. On the other hand, our data point out that GNR treatments can modulate the expression patterns of JNK1/2/3, NF-KB/p38, and MAPK, which could be the main molecular pathways of the nanorods in our experimental models.