Advances in Cardiovascular Biomarker Discovery.
AuthorGhantous, Crystal M
Zouein, Fouad A
MetadataShow full item record
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Among them, hypertension and its pathological complications pose a major risk for the development of other cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and stroke. Identifying novel and early stage biomarkers of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases is of paramount importance in predicting and preventing the major morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Biomarkers of such diseases or predisposition to their development are identified by changes in a specific indicator's expression between healthy individuals and patients. These include changes in protein and microRNA (miRNA) levels. Protein profiling using mass spectrometry and miRNA screening utilizing microarray and sequencing have facilitated the discovery of proteins and miRNA as biomarker candidates. In this review, we summarized some of the different, promising early stage protein and miRNA biomarker candidates as well as the currently used biomarkers for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Although a number of promising markers have been identified, it is unlikely that a single biomarker will unambiguously aid in the classification of these diseases. A multi-marker panel-strategy appears useful and promising for classifying and refining risk stratification among patients with cardiovascular disease.