Nanoparticles: Attractive tools to treat colorectal cancer
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AuthorNour K., Younis
Bassil, Emmanuel P.
Ghoubaira, Joseph A.
Eid, Ali H.
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Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the notable advances achieved over the last few decades, CRC remains a hard-to-treat deadly disease in many patients. This is attributed mainly to chemo- and immuno-resistance, which frequently emerge soon after treatment with conventional therapeutics. Systemic treatments are also constrained by their many undesired and serious side effects. More recently, nanomedicine has emerged as an attractive modality that can overcome issues of therapeutic resistance, improper delivery, or suboptimal targeting of tumor cells. Many nanomaterials, having already been examined in pre-clinical and clinical studies, are now considered biocompatible and relatively safe. Indeed, around 50 nano-formulations have so far been approved as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in humans. Here, in this review, we describe a set of imperative nanoparticles (NPs) involved in diagnosing and treating CRC. In particular, we discuss the theragnostic roles of quantum dots, iron oxide NPs, Polylactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs, dendrimer NPs, carbon nanotubes, liposomes, and gold NPs. We dissect the molecular and clinical evidence supporting the use of these NPs in CRC. We also highlight their implications in targeted drug delivery as well as their anti-tumorigenic properties and effects on the cardinal hallmarks of CRC. We conclude by highlighting the notion that nanomedicine is emerging as an attractive approach to address the unmet needs in managing several diseases, including CRC.
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