High fat diet exacerbates long-term metabolic, neuropathological, and behavioral derangements in an experimental mouse model of traumatic brain injury
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Bakkar, Nour-Mounira Z.
Reslan, Mohammad Amine
Eid, Ali H.
El-Yazbi, Ahmed F.
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AimsTraumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a serious public health concern. Although TBI targets the brain, it can exert several systemic effects which can worsen the complications observed in TBI subjects. Currently, there is no FDA-approved therapy available for its treatment. Thus, there has been an increasing need to understand other factors that could modulate TBI outcomes. Among the factors involved are diet and lifestyle. High-fat diets (HFD), rich in saturated fat, have been associated with adverse effects on brain health. Main methodsTo study this phenomenon, an experimental mouse model of open head injury, induced by the controlled cortical impact was used along with high-fat feeding to evaluate the impact of HFD on brain injury outcomes. Mice were fed HFD for a period of two months where several neurological, behavioral, and molecular outcomes were assessed to investigate the impact on chronic consequences of the injury 30 days post-TBI. Key findingsTwo months of HFD feeding, together with TBI, led to a notable metabolic, neurological, and behavioral impairment. HFD was associated with increased blood glucose and fat-to-lean ratio. Spatial learning and memory, as well as motor coordination, were all significantly impaired. Notably, HFD aggravated neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Also, cell proliferation post-TBI was repressed by HFD, which was accompanied by an increased lesion volume. SignificanceOur research indicated that chronic HFD feeding can worsen functional outcomes, predispose to neurodegeneration, and decrease brain recovery post-TBI. This sheds light on the clinical impact of HFD on TBI pathophysiology and rehabilitation as well.
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